Neurodegenerative diseases are still a challenge for researchers and clinicians due to its complexity. Traditional medicines usually do not provide sufficient protection against these diseases due to drug resistance and relapse. The discovery of the therapeutic potential of stem cells offers new opportunities for the treatment of incurable neurological diseases. Based on their biological properties, stem cells can differentiate into specific tissue type and maintain the cellular tissue/organ homeostasis in physiological and pathological conditions.
Recently, it has been demonstrated that somatic cells of patients can be reprogrammed to a pluripotent state from which neural lineage cells can be derived. Potential strategies such as cell replacement therapy and gene transfer to the diseased or injured brain have opened a new line of therapeutic approach for a broad spectrum of human neurological diseases. Thus, stem cell replacement therapy for central and peripheral nervous system disorders aims at repopulating the affected neural tissue with new neurons.
However, the limiting factors that have hampered the development of this promising therapeutic approach are the lack of suitable cell types for cell replacement therapy in patients suffering from neurological disorders. In this review, we have discussed the recent advances in stem cell replacement therapy with particular emphasis to neurological disorders. Mol Neurobiol. 2015 Aug;52(1):610-25
Dr. Rakesh K. Srivastava